Developing the child

Dr Maria Montessori's approach to education was to observe children carefully to discover their individual needs. She was a great innovator, always aware that education needs to change as society changes.

She believed that teachers could be trained to make children confident and capable self educators, prepared and equipped for the future. 

The Montessori approach places emphasis on educating the whole child, covering all aspects of development - intellectual, social, physical, emotional and spiritual. Building upon children's intrinsic desire to learn, Montessori created ideal environments full of opportunities for children to experiment and initiate their own education.

At the heart of the method are the Montessori materials, beautiful and enticing pieces of equipment which have been carefully designed to incorporate a teaching purpose. Understanding, dexterity and skill are developed each time the child uses them. 

Practical life activities

On first entering the Montessori school children are given the opportunity to develop important life skills which will allow them greater freedom in the classroom. They learn to manage their own clothes using dressing frames to practise buttons, zips and bows. They are also shown how to care for their classroom, using child-sized brushes and dusters. Developing practical skills - like pouring drinks from a jug and laying tables - and social skills with friends and teachers, enable them to feel capable, self-reliant members of the community. 


First learning is through the senses so Montessori schools use a range of well thought out exercises to help children sort, match and compare objects by shape, size, touch, taste and sound. These early sensorial impressions boost children's powers of observation and discrimination, broaden their vocabulary and contribute to their later understanding of formal educational concepts. 

Language and literacy

Montessori's language materials are based on a carefully structured phonic approach to writing and reading. Recognised for their excellence, they are used widely in many non-Montessori schools and settings where special help is required. First, children learn sensorially by tracing sandpaper letters with their fingers while they are told the sounds. Soon they are writing simple words with moveable letters, matching words with objects and reading their first stories in phonic readers. When asked how they learned to read and write Montessori children will often answer, "I did it myself." 


Essentially mathematics is about understanding relationships in the environment and being able to express them in mathematical terms. Montessori materials, like the number rods, golden beads and spindle boxes, are simple and interesting and provide step-by-step learning. They are also self correcting, which means that children can see at a glance if they have made a mistake and can put it right without a teacher's help. This enables them to progress at their own rate and understand each stage thoroughly before they move on to the next stage.


In the Montessori classroom children use globes, puzzle maps and flags to underpin activities which build their understanding of other countries, cultures and people. Children are also taught to match, classify and name the elements and species of the natural world using picture and name cards. Classroom plant growing and caring for pets help to form a bridge between the child's knowledge of the immediate environment and the wider world.